Baehr, Rosenfeld, & Baehr (2001). Journal of Neurotherapy, 4, 11-18
Baehr, Rosenfeld, and Baehr examined changes in depression in patients undergoing Neurofeedback and found improvements in patients’ depression scores. They used alpha asymmetry protocols. View Article.
There are very few studies examining the effectiveness of Neurofeedback for depression. Hammond has studied whether Depression can be treated successfully with Neurofeedback in small samples showing promising results. See http://www.braincoreny.com/images/14221ae9.pdf?& to read his work in the area of both depression and anxiety. Hammond states in an article for the ISNR, that “Neurofeedback treatments for depression appear very promising not only in bringing relief from depression, but in modifying the underlying biological predisposition for becoming depressed. Neurofeedback focuses on retraining the brain, for example, reversing the frontal brainwave asymmetry, with the goal of producing an enduring change that does not require people to remain on medication indefinitely.”
Written by Kluetsch, R.C. and colleagues 2013, Published in Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, pg 1-14
Recently a very exciting and innovative study from Western University has demonstrated that Neurofeedback training was associated with improvements in patients and correlations to changes in brain activity. View Article.
Written by Rice, K.M., Blanchard, E.G., & Purcell,M. Published in Biofeedback Self Regulation, 1993, 18, pg 93-105
Forty-five individuals with generalized anxiety were randomized to 4 treatment conditions or a waiting list control. Patients received 8 sessions of either frontal EMG biofeedback, biofeedback to increase EEG alpha, biofeedback to decrease EEG alpha, or a pseudomeditation control condition. All treated subjects showed significant reductions in STAI-Trait Anxiety and psychophysiologic symptoms on the Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist. Only alpha-increase biofeedback subjects showed significant reductions in heart rate reactivity to stressors at a separate psychophysiological testing session. Decreased self-report of anxiety was maintained at 6 weeks posttreatment. View Article.
Written by Hardt, J.V., & Kamiya, J, published in Science, 1978, 201, page 79-81.
Subjects who were either high or low in trait anxiety used alpha feedback to increase and to decrease their electroencephalographic alpha activity. The alpha changes were tightly linked to anxiety changes, but only in high anxiety subjects (for whom anxiety was reduced in proportion to alpha increases, and was increased in proportion to alpha suppression. View Article.
Written by Moore, NC, Clinical Electroencephalogr, 2000, 31, pg 1-6
This article outlines the research that has examined Neurofeedback for anxiety conditions up until 2000, highlighting that alpha, theta, and lapha-theta enhancement is effective. View Article.
Written by Fuchs, T., Birbaumer, N., Lutzenberger, W., Gruzelier, J.H., & kaisier, J. (2003). Published in Applied psychophysiological Biofeedback, 28, pg 1-12.
The authors compared the effects of a 3-month electroencephalographic feedback program providing reinforcement contingent on the production of cortical sensorimotor rhythm (12-15 Hz) and beta activity (15-18 Hz) with stimulant medication. Results showed Neurofeedback and methylphenidate to result in improvements in all scales of attention, speed and accuracy, and other ADHD behaviours. View Article.
Written by Arns, M., de Ridder, S., Strehl, U, Breteler M., and Coenen, A (2009). In the Journal of Clinical EEG and Neuroscience.
Both prospective controlled studies and studies employing a pre- and post-design found large effect sizes (ES) for neurofeedback on impulsivity and inattention and a medium ES for hyperactivity. Randomized studies demonstrated a lower ES for hyperactivity suggesting that hyperactivity is probably most sensitive to nonspecific treatment factors.
The clinical effects of Neurofeedback in the treatment of ADHD can be regarded as clinically meaningful. Three randomized studies have employed a semi-active control group which can be regarded as a credible sham control providing an equal level of cognitive training and client-therapist interaction. Therefore, in line with the AAPB and ISNR guidelines for rating clinical efficacy, we conclude that Neurofeedback treatment for ADHD can be considered “Efficacious and Specific” (Level 5) with a large ES for inattention and impulsivity and a medium ES for hyperactivity. View Article.
Written by Gevensleben, H., Holl, B., Albrecht, B., Vogel, C., Schlamp, D., et al. (2009). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 780–789.
The authors compared children who completed Neurofeedback training with those completing a computerised attention skills training. Improvements in the Neurofeedback group were superior to the control group, including ratings of attention, hyperactivity, and oppositional behaviour. View Article.
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Written by Beauregard, M., & Levesque, J. (2006). Applied Psychology and Biofeedback, 31, 3–20.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the effects of neurofeedback training on neural bases of selective attention and response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
In this study, the authors examined the neural substrates of selective attention and response inhibition through fMRI of Twenty unmedicated AD/HD children. Fifteen children were randomly assigned to the Experimental (EXP) group whereas the other five children were randomly assigned to the Control (CON) group. Only subjects in the EXP group underwent Neurofeedback. EXP subjects were trained to enhance the amplitude of the SMR (12-15 Hz) and beta 1 activity (15-18 Hz), and decrease the amplitude of theta activity (4-7 Hz). The results suggest that NFT has the capacity to functionally normalize the brain systems mediating selective attention and response inhibition in AD/HD children. View Article.